What causes this disease?

The bacterium causing this disease is known as Hemophilus paragallinarum.


  • The disease spreads from bird to bird and flock to flock by contact and airborne infected dust particles and via the drinking water.
  • Spread by equipment and personnel has also been reported.
  • The incubation period varies from 1 to 3 days.

   Clinical signs of the disease

  • The main signs of the disease are inflammation of eyes and nose with foul-smelling discharges, conjunctivitis, sneezing and facial swellings. Feed and water intake is reduced, leading to loss of weight. Egg production in laying birds will drop.
  • Mortality will vary with the virulence of the infection but is generally low

Treatment and Control

  • Treatment with antibiotics can be given to subdue clinical infection, but eradication and prevention are the most desirable means of control.
  • Vaccines have been developed, but are only used in areas where the disease is endemic and cannot be eradicated.


Judy Vanessa

Judy Vanessa is an accomplished explorer,a passionate animal health extension practitioner and author. She loves writing about farming articles in various sectors.


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